Encyclopedia > F-stop

Article Content

F-number

Redirected from F-stop

 Detail of a camera showing f stop scale.

In photography the f-number expresses the diameter of the diaphragm aperture in terms of the effective focal length of the lens. For example, f/16 represents a diaphragm aperture diameter that is one-sixteenth of the focal length.

The higher the f-number, the less light is admitted through the lens.

f stops are a way of representing a convenient sequence of f-numbers in a geometric progression. Each 'stop' is marked with its corresponding f-number, and represents a halving of the light intensity from the one before, corresponding to a decrease of the diaphragm aperture diameter by a factor of √2, and hence an halving of the area of the aperture.

Modern lenses use a standard f stops scale that corresponds to the sequence of the powers of √2 : f/1, f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, f/32, f/45 and f/64. (Note that the values of the ratios are rounded off, to make them easy to write down).

Shutter speeds are arranged in a similar scale, so that one step in the shutter speed scale corresponds to one step in the f stop scale.

Photographers sometimes express exposure ratios in terms of 'stops'. If we ignore the f-number markings, the f-stops make a logarithmic scale of exposure intensity. Given this interpretation, you can then think of taking a half-step along this scale, to make an exposure difference of "half a stop".

Since all lenses absorb some portion of the light passing through them (particularly zoom lenses[?] containing many elements), for exposure purposes a T-stop is sometimes used instead of f-stop. The T-numbers are adjusted so that the amount of light transmitted through the lens at a given T-stop is equal to that going through an ideal non-absorbing lens set at that f-stop.

In practice the maximal aperture of a lens often differs from a power of √2, and is not one of the standard f-stops. For example, the sequence of F-stops on the lens depicted in the picture above has f-numbers of f/3.5, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16 and f/22.

Depth of field increases with f-stop; for an example of this relationship, visit the depth of field article.

Picture sharpness[?] also varies with f-stop. The optimal f-stop vary with the lens characteristics. For example, on modern standard lenses having 6 or 7 elements the sharpest image is obtained around f/5.6-f/8, while for older standard lenses having only 4 elements (Tessar formula) stopping to f/11 will give the sharpest image. The reason the sharpness is best at medium f-numbers is that the sharpness at high f-number is constrained by diffraction, whereas at low f-numbers lens faults known as aberrations will dominate.

As an example of the use of f-numbers, an approximately correct exposure will be obtained on a sunny day using ISO 125 film, an aperture of f/16 and a shutter speed of 1/125th of a second. This is called the "sunny f/16 rule".

All Wikipedia text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Search Encyclopedia
 Search over one million articles, find something about almost anything!

Featured Article
 Vinegar ... around Modena in Italy from white Trebbiano grape juice, is used in salad dressings. It is aged in wooden barrels to give it a dark color and sweet flavour. Th ...