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Empirical methods

Empirical methods are the means by which scientists gather information about the world in order to develop theories. These include experiment, disclosure of apparatus for reproducing experiments[?], and other ways in which theories are in/validated by scientists. The philosophy of science is mostly concerned with defining, disclosing and limiting the application of these methods. The term quasi-empirical methods evolved to describe aspects of the scientific method which are not amenable to disproof by experiment[?]. These are now widely recognized to constitute much of what is loosely called 'scientific consensus[?]', especially as some sciences (e.g. string theory in physics, climate change in ecology) are not amenable to direct experimental invalidation, or indeed controlled experiment.

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