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In some countries, provinces and states, the highest court is called the supreme court; for example, the Supreme Court of the United States. In most states with constitutions, the supreme court interprets that state's constitution. It has also been called the court of last resort as there is no further appeal that can be taken from such a court.

Generally, the higher courts in an area create case law with their decisions, or interpret codal provision in civil law countries to maintain a uniform interpretation.

In some states of the United States, the highest court is called "Supreme Court", in others, "Court of Appeals".

The highest court in France is called the Cour de cassation.

In the United Kingdom, there is no single court called the "Supreme Court". In England and Wales, the Supreme Court includes the High Court of England and Wales and the Court of Appeal of England and Wales. In Scotland the Supreme Court is the Court of Session[?]. Above these is the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords (aka the "Law Lords"), the most senior court in the UK, though this is due to change in 2003 with the creation of a true Supreme Court for the UK. For a fuller explanation, see the entry on the UK Court Systems.

In Germany, there is no single supreme court. Interpretation of the German constitution, the Grundgesetz, is the task of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. With civil and criminal cases, the highest court in a hierarchy of appellate courts is the Bundesgerichtshof[?]. The other branches of the German judicial branch for social, labor, and administrative cases each have their own appellate systems and highest courts.

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