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Constitutional Act of 1791

The Constitutional Act of 1791 was a British law which changed the government of the province of Quebec to accommodate the many English-speaking settlers, known as the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution. Quebec was divided in two. The western half became Upper Canada (now southern Ontario) and the eastern half Lower Canada (now southern Quebec). Upper Canada received English law and institutions, while Lower Canada retained French law and institutions, including seigneurial land tenure, and the privileges accorded to the Roman Catholic church. Representative governments[?] were established in both colonies with the creation of a Legislative Assembly; Quebec had not previously had representative government. Within each Assembly there was also an upper house, the Legislative Council, created for wealthy landowners; within the Legislative Council was the Executive Council, acting as a cabinet for the governor.

The Constitutional Act also tried to create an established church by creating clergy reserves[?] grants of land reserved for the Anglican Church. These reserves created many difficulties in later years.

The Act was problematic for both English and French; the French felt they might be overshadowed by English settlement and increased rights for Protestants, while the new English settlers felt the French still had too much power. However, both English and French preferred the Act and the institutions it created to American rule, especially during the increased conflict with the United States 20 years later that led to the War of 1812.

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