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Comfrey

Symphytum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus: Symphytum
Species
Symphytum asperum Lepechin
Symphytum officinale L.
Symphytum tuberosum L.
Symphytum x uplandicum Nyman
Ref: ITIS 32025 (http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=32025) 2002-09-05.
NRM, Sweden (http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/chk/lexs.htm) 2002-09-05.
IPNI Symphytum (http://www.ipni.org/ipni/IpniServlet?whole_name=&family=&infrafamily=&genus=symphytum&infragenus=&is_apni_record=on&species=&infraspecies=&is_gci_record=on&author_abbrev=&publication_title=&is_ik_record=on&include_authors=on&include_basionym_authors=on&query_type=by_query) 2002-09-05.
Flora of China (http://hua.huh.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/Flora/taxon.pl?ACT=desc&FLORA_ID=11746&TAXON_ID=132030) 2002-09-05.

Comfrey is an important herb in organic gardening, having many medicinal and fertiliser uses

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) is a perennial herb of the family Boraginaceae with a black, turnip like root and large, hairy broad leaves that bears small bell-shaped white, cream, purple or pink flowers. It is native to Europe, growing in damp, grassy places, and is widespread throughout the British Isles on river banks and ditches. Comfrey has long been recognised by both organic gardeners and herbalists for its great usefulness and versatility, of particular interest is the "Bocking 14" cultivar of Russian Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum). This strain was developed during the 1950s by Lawrence D Hills[?], the founder of the Henry Doubleday Research Association[?] (the organic gardening organisation itself named after the Quaker pioneer that first introduced Russian Comfrey into Britain in the 1910s) following trials at Bocking, near Braintree, the original home of the organisation.

Other species include:

  • Symphytum asperum, Prickly comfrey (old: S. asperrimum)
  • Symphytum bulbosum,
  • Symphytum caucasicum, Caucasian comfrey,
  • Symphytum grandiflorum, (synonym: S. ibericum)
  • Symphytum tauricum,
  • Symphytum tuberosum, Tuberous comfrey,
  • Symphytum x uplandicum, Russian comfrey, Healing herb, Blackwort, Bruisewort, Wallwort, Gum plant. (S. asperum x officinale, old: S. peregrinum)

Table of contents

Propagation Bocking 14 is sterile, and therefore will not set seed (one of its advantages over other cultivars as it will not spread out of control), thus is propagated from root cuttings. The gardener can produce their own 'offsets' from mature, strongly growing plants by driving a spade horizontally through the leaf clumps about 3' below the soil surface. This removes the crown which can then be split into pieces. The original plant will quickly recover, and each piece can be replanted with the growing points just below the soil surface, and will quickly grow into new plants. When choosing plants to divide ensure that they are strong healthy specimens with no signs of rust or mildew[?]. When dividing comfrey plants take care not to spread root fragments around, or dispose of on the compost heap as each can re-root, and comfrey can be a very difficult plant to get rid of. Offsets can also be purchased by mail order from the HDRA and other specialist nurseries in order to initially build up a stock of plants.

Cultivation

The comfrey bed should be well prepared by weeding thoroughly, and dressing with manure if available. Offsets should be planted 2-3 feet apart with the growing points just below the surface, whilst root segments should be buried about 2' deep. Keep the bed well watered until the young plants are established. Comfrey should not be harvested in its first season as it needs to become established. Any flowering stems should be removed as these will weaken the plants in its first year. Comfrey should also be regularly watered until well established. Comfrey is a fast growing plant, producing huge amounts of leaf during the growing season, hence is very nitrogen hungry. Although it will continue to grow no matter what, it will benefit from the addition of animal manure applied as a mulch, and can also be mulched with other nitrogen rich materials such as lawn mowings, and is one of the few plants that will tolerate the application of fresh urine diluted 50:50 with water, although this should not be regularly added as it may increase salt levels in the soil and have adverse effects on soil life such as worms. Mature comfrey plants can be harvested up to four or five times a year. They are ready for cutting when about 2ft high, and, depending on seasonal conditions, this is usually in April. Comfrey will rapidly regrow, and will be ready for further cutting about 5 weeks later. It is said that the best time to cut comfrey is shortly before flowering, for this is when it is at it's most potent in terms of the nutrients that it offers. Comfrey can continue growing into November, but it is not advisable to continue taking cuttings after September in order to allow the plants to build up winter reserves. As the leaves die back and break down in winter, nutrients and minerals are transported back to the roots for use the following spring.

Comfrey should be harvested by using shears or a sickle to cut the plant about 2' above the ground, taking care handling it because the leaves and stems are covered in hairs that can irritate the skin. It is advisable to wear gloves when handling comfrey. Despite being sterile, Bocking 14 Russian Comfrey will steadily increase in size. It is therefore advisable to split it up every few years (and at the same time propagate more plants that can be shared with fellow gardeners!). It is however difficult to remove comfrey once established as it is very deep rooting, and any fragments left in the soil will regrow. Rotovation can be successful, but may take several seasons. The best way to eradicate comfrey is to very carefully dig it out, removing as much of the root as possible. This is best done in hot, dry summer weather, wherin the dry conditions will help to kill off any remaining root stumps. Comfrey is generally trouble free once established, although weaker or stressed plants can suffer from comfrey rust or mildew. Both are fungal diseases, although they rarely seriously reduce plant growth and thus do not generally require control. However infected plants should not be used for propagation purposes.

Medicinal Uses

Rosemary Morrow writes that 'Russian comfrey and garlic could together, according to natural health usage, almost half the present ills of western civilisation' (The Book Of Herbs, Pan 1976). An extravagant claim perhaps, but it does indeed have a wealth of medicinal uses. One of it's country names was 'knitbone', a reminder of its traditional use in healing. The herb contains allantoin, a cell proliferant that speeds up the natural replacement of body cells. This means that it will promote the swift healing of damaged or injured tissues, as well as maintaining cell growth and preventing diseases. Comfrey has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments ranging from bronchial problems, broken bones, sprains, arthritis, gastric and varicose ulcers, severe burns, acne and other skin conditions. It is also said to have bone and teeth building properties in children, and have value in treating 'many female disorders'. In past times comfrey baths were popular to repair the hymen and thus 'restore virginity'. Constituents of comfrey also include mucilage[?], steroidal saponins[?], tannins, pyrrolizidine alkoloids[?], inulin[?], vitamin B12 and proteins.

Excessive internal usage of comfrey should be avoided because it contains hepatotoxic (= toxic to the liver) pyrrolidizine alkaloids (PAs) (Note, there are also non-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.). Overuse of comfrey can, because of these PAs, lead to veno-occlusive liver disease[?] (VOD). VOD can in turn lead to liver failure, and comfrey, taken in extreme amounts, has been implicated in at least one death. 1 (http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/faqs/medi-2-15-comfrey)

Symphytine[?], one of the PAs in comfrey, has been implicated in cancer in rats. This was injection of the pure alkaloid. The whole plant, on the other hand, has been found to reduce cancers (malign growths) in rats.

Avoid using comfrey on dirty or deep wounds, as the rapid healing properties of the allantoins[?] may trap dirt or pus, leading to the formation of abscesses. A study has also found that livertoxic PAs are absorbed through broken skin.

Fertiliser Uses

Comfrey is a particularly valuable source of fertility to the organic gardener. It is very deep rooted and acts as a dynamic accumulator[?], mining a host of nutrients from the soil. These are then made available through it's fast growing leaves (up to 4-5 lb per plant per cut) which, lacking fibre, quickly break down to a thick black liquid. There is also no risk of nitrogen robbery when comfrey is dug into the soil as the C:N ratio[?] of the leaves is lower than that of well-rotted compost. Comfrey is an excellent source of potassium, an essential plant nutrient needed for flower, seeds and fruit production. Its leaves contain 2-3 times more potassium than farmyard manure, mined from deep in the subsoil[?], tapping into reserves that would not normally be available to plants.

There are various ways in which comfrey can be utilised as a fertiliser, these include:

  • Comfrey for potatoes- freshly cut comfrey should be wilted for a day or two, then laid in potato trenches about 2' deep. Avoid using flowering stems as these can root. The leaves will rapidly break down and supply potassium rich fertiliser for the developing potato plants.
  • Comfrey as a compost activator[?]- include 2-3' deep layers of comfrey in the compost heap to encourage bacterial activity and help to heat the heap. Comfrey should not be added in quantity as it will quickly break down into a dark sludgey liquid that needs to be balanced with more fibrous, carbon rich material.
  • Comfrey liquid fertiliser- can be produced by either rotting leaves down in rainwater for 4-5 weeks to produce a ready to use 'comfrey tea', or by stacking dry leaves under a weight in a container with a hole in the base. When the leaves decompose a thick black comfrey concentrate is collected. This must be diluted @ 15:1 before use.
  • Comfrey as a mulch[?]- a 2' layer of comfrey leaves placed around a crop will slowly break down and release plant nutrients. it is especially useful for crops that need extra potassium, such as tomatoes, and also fruit bushes like gooseberries and currants.
  • Comfrey potting mixture- originally devised using peat, environmental awareness has lead to a leaf-mold based alternative being adopted instead. Two year old, well decayed leaf mold should be used, this will absorb the nutrient rich liquid released by the decaying comfrey.
  • In a black plastic sack alternate 3-4' layers of leaf mould and chopped comfrey leaves. Add a little dolomitic limestone[?] to slightly raise pH. Leave for between 2-5 months depending on the season, checking that it does not dry out or become too wet. the mixture is ready when the comfrey leaves have rotted and are no longer visible. Use as a general potting compost, although it is too strong for seedlings.



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