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Choshu (長州) is the commonly used abbreviation for the Nagato province of ancient Japan. Nagato is formally written as Nagato no Kuni (長門国) and is now the western half of present day Yamaguchi prefecture.

In 1871 with the abolition of feudal domains and the establishment of prefectures (Haihan Chiken) after the Meiji Restoration, the provinces of Nagato and Suo were combined to eventually establish Yamaguchi prefecture.

Historically, the oligarchy that came into power after the "Meiji Restoration" of 1868 had a strong representation from the Choshu province, as Ito Hirobumi, Yamagata Aritomo, and Kido Koin[?] were from there. Other natives famous for their role in the restoration include Yoshida Shoin[?], Takasugi Shinsaku[?], and Kusaka Genzui[?] among others.

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