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Caernarfon (the original Welsh spelling is now normally used in preference over the Anglicised form, "Caernarvon" or "Carnarvon") is a small town in north-west Wales, best known for its great stone castle, the handiwork of Edward I of England and consequently sometimes seen as a symbol of English domination. Edward's architect modelled the castle on the walls of Constantinople - Edward being devoted to the Crusader cause.

The population of Caernarfon is largely Welsh-speaking and the town is nowadays a rallying-point for the nationalist cause. In 1911, David Lloyd George, then MP for the borough, conceived the idea of holding the investiture of the new Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle, believing that this would help pacify nationalist opinion whilst arousing patriotic feeling. The ceremony took place on July 13, with the royal family paying a rare visit to the principality, and the future King Edward VIII was duly invested.

On July 1, 1969, the investiture ceremony was repeated at Caernarfon, the recipient on this occasion being Charles Philip Arthur Windsor. Despite nationalist threats and protests throughout Wales, the ceremony went ahead without incident. Caernarfon is also home to the regimental museum of the Royal Welch Fusiliers.

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