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Bohai

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The following refers to the kingdom of Bohai. You may want to redirect your link if you meant the Bohai Sea.


Bohai (渤海 698-926; Korean: Balhae, possibly original Bargae) was a kingdom in Manchuria and northern Korea, founded by Da Zuorong from Sumo Mohe (粟末靺鞨) ethnic group, integrating several Mohe tribes and Goguryeo remnants. It was conquered by the Khitan in 926.

In the confusion of the Khitan rebellion against Tang in 696, Sumo Mohe tribe, led by Qiqi Zhongxiang and Qisi Piyu, escaped eastward to their homeland. The two leaders died but Da Zuorong, the son of Qiqi Zhongxiang, established the State of Zhen (震 or 振). Since it gained power under protection of Gokturk, Tang gave Da Zuorong the title of "Prefecture King of Bohai" in 713. Bohai had been a Chinese prefecture, but since then referred to the kingdom. The title was upgraded to "State King of Bohai" in 762.

After destroyed Bohai in 926, the Khitan put the state of Eastern Khitan, followed by the annexation by Liao in 936. Small fragments of the state were semiindependent. Some Bohai people fled southward to Goryeo, including a son of the last king. Some descendants of the royal family live in Korea changing their family name to Tae (太). The 13th century census of Northern China by the Mongols distinguished Bohai from other ethnic groups such as Goryeo (Korean), Khitan and Jurchen. This suggests that the Bohai people still preserved their identity.



Sovereigns of Bohai 698-926
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
高王 gao1 wang2 Da Zuorong|大祚榮 da4 zuo4 rong2 698-718 Did not exist
武王 wu3 wang2 Da Wuyi|大武藝 da4 wu3 yi4 718-737 Ren'an (仁安 ren3 an1)
文王 wen2 wang2 Da Qinmao|大欽茂 da4 qin1 mao4 737-793 Daxing (大興 da4 xing1)
Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 774-?
Daxing (大興 da4 xing1)
? Da Yuanyi|大元義 da4 yuan2 yi4 793-794 Zhongxing (中興 zhong4 xing1)
成王 cheng2 wang2 Da Huaxing|大華興 da4 hua1 xing1 794 ?
康王 kang1 wang2 Da Songlin|大嵩璘 da4 song1 lin2 794-808 Zhengli (正曆 zheng4 li4)
定王 ding4 wang2 Da Yuanyu|大元瑜 da4 yuan2 yu2 808-812 Yongde (永德 yong3 de2)
僖王 xi1 wang2 Da Yanyi|大言義 da4 yan2 yi4 812-817? Zhuqiao (朱雀 zhu1 qiao3)
簡王 jian3 wang2 Da Mingzhong|大明忠 da4 ming2 zhong1 817?-818? Taishi (太始 tai4 shi3)
宣王 xuan1 wang2 Da Renxiu|大仁秀 da4 ren2 xiu4 818?-830 ?
? Da Yizhen|大彝震 da4 yi2 zhen4 830-857 ?
? Da Qianhuang|大虔晃 da4 qian2 huang3 857-871 ?
? Da Xuanxi|大玄錫 da4 xuan2 xi2 871-895 ?
? Da Weixie|大瑋瑎 da4 wei3 xie2 895-907? ?
? Da Yinzhuan|大諲譔 da4 yin1 zhuan4 907?-926 ?

Important source of cultural information on Bohai was discovered at the end of the 20th century at the Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, especially the Mausoleum of Princess Zhenxiao.


See also: Ethnic groups in Chinese history



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