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Apache language

Apache is an Athabaskan language closely related to Navajo. It is spoken in the United States, unusual because most Athabaskan languages are spoken in the northwest of Canada and Alaska.

Like most Athabaskan languages, Apache shows various levels of animacy in its grammar, with certain nouns taking different verb forms from others according to their rank in this animacy hierarchy.

Apache's phonology is very similar to that of Navajo. It has four vowels a, e, i and o, and these may all be nasalised, long, high in tone or combinations of the three.

The consonants of the western dialect of Apache are as follows:

              Stop     Fricative     Affricate   Approximant   Nasal
 Bilabial     b                                  w             m
 Alveolar     d t t'   z   s         dz ts ts'                 n
 Alv. lateral              lh        dl tl tl'   l
 Postalveolar          zh  sh        j  ch ch'   y
 Velar        g k k'   gh  x*
 Velar labial   kw     ghw xw
 Glottal        '          h*

 * /x/ and /h/ are allophones; this is typical of the United States Athabaskan languages.

Some dialects of Apache include Jicarilla, Chiricahua and Western Apache.

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