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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis de Tocqueville (born July 29, 1805, in Paris; died April 16, 1859, in Cannes) was a French political thinker and historian. His works include Du Système Pénitentaire aux États-Unis et de Son Application en France (1833), De La Démocratie (1840), and L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution (1856). He championed liberty and democracy.

His work based on his travels in the United States, translated in the English language as Democracy in America, is frequently used in courses in 19th century United States history.


  • Democracy and socialism have nothing in common but one word, equality. But notice the difference: while democracy seeks equality in liberty, socialism seeks equality in restraint and servitude.

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