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Achaemenid was the name given to the kings of ancient Persia starting in 538 BC, when Cyrus the Great established the first Persian Empire by conquering Babylon. It endured for more than two centuries, until conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BC.

At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia (modern Iran) ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Pakistan, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Armenia, Central Asia, Caucasia and the Asian portion of Turkey. At different times, the Achaemenids also ruled Egypt, although the Egyptians twice regained their independence from Persia.

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