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A Study of History

A Study of History is the 12-volume magnum opus of British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, finished in 1961. In it he traces the birth, growth and decay of some 21 to 23 major civilizations in the world.

Toynbee applies his model to each of these civilizations, painstakingly detailing the stages through which they all pass: genesis, growth, time of troubles, universal state, and death.

It remains to be seen what will come of the four remaining civilizations of the 21st century: Western Civilization, Islamic Society, Hindu Society, and the Far East. Toynbee hints that they might all merge with Western Civilization.


  • See "The life and death of civilizations" in Living the Vision (http://www.algonet.se/~paulh/vision)

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